Parenting Practices

Parenting practices around the world share three major goals: ensuring the health and safety
of their children, preparing children for life as productive adults and transmitting cultural
values. A high-quality parent-child relationship is critical for healthy development. While
children and adolescents who grow up with strict, authoritarian parents tend to follow rules
much of the time, the strict parenting style could also impact on child development.
As a member of Hong Kong Parenting Society who is concerned about the issues of
parenting and parent-child relationships, write an academic essay of around 650 – 700 words
to (1) highlight the seriousness of the problem of a strict, authoritarian parenting style, (2)
examine its possible causes, and (3) suggest solutions to it.
 You are recommended to read the three recommended journal articles as they will
give you some background information about authoritarian parenting styles. Abstracts of
these articles have been provided to give you a rough idea of what each of them is about.
 You MUST conduct your own research on the topic and refer to other scholarly
references when completing your work. Remember to acknowledge your sources
using the APA citation style (7th edition) properly.
 When writing the essay, pay attention to grammatical accuracy, paragraphing and the
formality of your work. Do also make sure you have a clear introduction, body and
 Additional marks will be awarded for the clear development of your ideas through the
use of connectives, as well as for the use of relevant information from the texts you have
read to support and illustrate your discussion.
 Remember to attach the cover sheet when submitting your assignment.
 You should submit a soft copy of your assignment online by clicking the ‘Submission’
icon under the heading ‘Assignments’ on the OLE to your lecturer.
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Journal Article 1
Kang, J., & Guo, H. (2021). The effects of authoritative parenting style on young adult
children’s prosocial behaviour: the mediating role of emotion-regulation. China Journal
of Social Work. Advance online publication.
This study aims to examine how the authoritative parenting style influences
young adult children’s prosocial behaviour through self-regulation (i.e. cognitive
reappraisal and expressive suppression). Using survey data collected from Chinese
young adults (N = 307), 19 to 25 years old, we conducted regression and bootstrap
analyses. The results revealed that the authoritative parenting style was associated
with cognitive reappraisal and prosocial behaviour but not expressive suppression.
Also, cognitive reappraisal correlated to prosocial behaviour and had a partial
mediation between authoritative parenting and prosocial behaviour. Implications
for social work and social policies are also discussed.
Journal Article 2
Kuppens, S., & Ceulemans, E. (2019). Parenting styles: A closer look at a well-known
concept. Journal of child and family studies, 28(1), 168−181.
Although parenting styles constitute a well-known concept in parenting research,
two issues have largely been overlooked in existing studies. In particular, the
psychological control dimension has rarely been explicitly modelled and there is
limited insight into joint parenting styles that simultaneously characterize
maternal and paternal practices and their impact on child development. Using data
from a sample of 600 Flemish families raising an 8-to-10 year old child, we
identified naturally occurring joint parenting styles. A cluster analysis based on
two parenting dimensions (parental support and behavioral control) revealed four
congruent parenting styles: an authoritative, positive authoritative, authoritarian
and uninvolved parenting style. A subsequent cluster analysis comprising three
parenting dimensions (parental support, behavioral and psychological control)
yielded similar cluster profiles for the congruent (positive) authoritative and
authoritarian parenting styles, while the fourth parenting style was relabeled as a
congruent intrusive parenting style. ANOVAs demonstrated that having (positive)
authoritative parents associated with the most favorable outcomes, while having
authoritarian parents coincided with the least favorable outcomes. Although less
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pronounced than for the authoritarian style, having intrusive parents also
associated with poorer child outcomes. Results demonstrated that accounting for
parental psychological control did not yield additional parenting styles, but
enhanced our understanding of the pattern among the three parenting dimensions
within each parenting style and their association with child outcomes. More
similarities than dissimilarities in the parenting of both parents emerged, although
adding psychological control slightly enlarged the differences between the scores
of mothers and fathers.
Journal Article 3
Wang, M., Deng, X., & Du, X. (2018). Harsh parenting and academic achievement in
Chinese adolescents: Potential mediating roles of effortful control and classroom
engagement. Journal of school psychology, 67, 16−30.
This study examined (a) the potential mediating roles of effortful control and
classroom engagement in the association between harsh parenting and adolescent
academic achievement, and (b) the potential moderating role of gender. Sixth
through eighth graders in rural China (n = 815, mean age = 12.55 years) reported
on harsh parenting, effortful control, and classroom engagement. Parents also
reported on each other\’s harsh parenting. Academic achievement was assessed by
students’ test scores and teacher-rated academic performance. Results of structural
equation modeling revealed gender differences in patterns of association among
the model variables. Harsh parenting was negatively and directly associated with
academic achievement for both boys and girls. It was also negatively and
indirectly associated with academic achievement via effortful control and
classroom engagement sequentially, forming a common indirect “path” for boys
and girls. The indirect negative effect of harsh parenting on boys’ academic
achievement was mainly realized through the mediator of effortful control,
whereas this same indirect effect for girls was mainly realized through the
mediator of classroom engagement. Jointly, effortful control and classroom
engagement precipitates more indirect effects for boys than for girls in the
association between harsh parenting and academic achievement. The discussion
analyzes the potential “paths” from harsh parenting to adolescent academic
achievement, as well as gender differences in these “paths.” The current study has
implications for teachers and parents eager to improve students\’ classroom
engagement and academic achievement.
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ENGL E102F Marking Criteria for Assignment 1
Student Name: _______________
SID: ______________
Content (40 marks) / 40
 The title is succinct and clear.
 The introduction effectively presents relevant background
information and the author’s main ideas on the topic.
 Ideas and arguments are fully developed.
 Each key idea is supported by strong evidence from
scholarly work.
 The conclusion summarizes the main points discussed in
the body paragraphs.
Coherence and Cohesion (20 marks) / 20
 The thesis statement provides a clear overview of the essay.
 Topic sentences effectively encapsulate the gist of individual
paragr aphs.
 Each paragraph is well-structured with a topic sentence,
followed by supporting information and a short conclusion.
 Ideas flow logically within and between paragraphs.
 Cohesive and transition devices as well as syntactic patterns
are used appropriately to mark relationships between ideas.
Language (30 marks) / 30
 There is a wide range of vocabulary and an accurate use
of words.
 The writing demonstrates a high level of grammatical
 Ideas are presented in a good variety of syntactic structures.
 Reference materials are skilfully paraphrased and
summarized using own words.
 The essay is written with an appropriate level of formality.
Referencing (10 marks) / 10
 In-text citations are presented correctly in APA format.
 A complete reference list is provided at the end of the essay
in proper APA style.
 Cross-referencing is effectively done to help readers locate
sources of information.
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