Read the attached primary source and write a response to all of the following questions. If it is not possible to answer one of the questions, explain why.

  • Reading this text, what can you tell about the culture in which it was written (values, rituals, ideas, politics, cuisine, etc.)?
  • What is the literary genre of this text? 
  • Does this text remind you of anything you’ve seen before?
  • As you are reading this primary source text for the first time, what questions would you need/want to be answered in order to understand the text better?


  • 250–300 words in length
  • If you want to include a direct quote from the source, put it in quotation marks (no page number or text name is required for this source). 
  • Organizing your response in a logical way, quoting the source correctly, and using correct grammar and spelling all count as part of your grade for this assignment

Lines 1-12
Lady of all the divine powers, resplendent light, righteous woman clothed in radiance, beloved of An
and Urac! Mistress of heaven, with the great pectoral jewels, who loves the good headdress befitting the
office of en priestess, who has seized all seven of its divine powers!
My lady, you are the guardian of the great divine powers! You have taken up the divine powers, you
have hung the divine powers from your hand. You have gathered up the divine powers, you have
clasped the divine powers to your breast. Like a dragon you have deposited venom on the foreign lands.
When like Ickur you roar at the earth, no vegetation can stand up to you. As a flood descending upon (?)
those foreign lands, powerful one of heaven and earth, you are their Inana.
Lines 81-c.100
I, En-hedu-ana, will recite a prayer to you. To you, holy Inana, I shall give free vent to my tears like
sweet beer! I shall say to her \”Your decision!\” (some mss. have instead: \”Greetings!\”) Do not be anxious
about Acimbabbar. In connection with the purification rites of holy An, Lugal-ane has altered everything
of his, and has stripped An of the E-ana. He has not stood in awe of the greatest deity. He has turned that
temple, whose attractions were inexhaustible, whose beauty was endless, into a destroyed temple. While
he entered before me as if he was a partner, really he approached out of envy.
My good divine wild cow, drive out the man, capture the man! In the place of divine encouragement,
what is my standing now? May An extradite the land which is a malevolent rebel against your Nanna!
May An smash that city! May Enlil curse it! May its plaintive child not be placated by his mother! Lady,
with the laments begun, may your ship of lamentation be abandoned in hostile territory. Must I die
because of my holy songs?
Lines 122-138
It must be known! It must be known! Nanna has not yet spoken out! He has said, \”He is yours!\” Be it
known that you are lofty as the heavens! Be it known that you are broad as the earth! Be it known that
you destroy the rebel lands! Be it known that you roar at the foreign lands! Be it known that you crush
heads! Be it known that you devour corpses like a dog! Be it known that your gaze is terrible! Be it
known that you lift your terrible gaze! Be it known that you have flashing eyes! Be it known that you are
unshakeable and unyielding! Be it known that you always stand triumphant! That Nanna has not yet
spoken out, and that he has said \”He is yours!\” has made you greater, my lady; you have become the
My lady beloved by An, I shall tell of all your rages (1 ms. has instead: daises)! I have heaped up the
coals in the censer, and prepared the purification rites. The Ecdam-kug shrine awaits you. Might your
heart not be appeased towards me?
Lines 144-154
The powerful lady, respected in the gathering of rulers, has accepted her offerings from her. Inana\’s holy
heart has been assuaged. The light was sweet for her, delight extended over her, she was full of fairest
beauty. Like the light of the rising moon, she exuded delight. Nanna came out to gaze at her properly,
and her mother Ningal blessed her. The door posts greeted her. Everyone\’s speech to the mistress is
exalted. Praise be to the destroyer of foreign lands, endowed with divine powers by An, to my lady
enveloped in beauty, to Inana!

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